Ljubljana related

05 Aug 2020, 22:20 PM

Časoris is an online newspaper aimed at children. Each week we’ll take an article and post it here as a Slovene-English dual text.

Delfini ne sprejmejo vsakogar za prijatelja

Dolphins do not accept everyone as a friend

Written by Urša Adamič, translated by JL Flanner & G Translate

Delfini so izbirčni pri tkanju prijateljskih vezi. Že v času odraščanja previdno tvorijo skupine, v katerih razvijajo spretnosti za življenje.

Dolphins are picky when weaving friendly ties. Already in adolescence, they carefully form groups in which they develop life skills.

V zalivu Shark Bay v Avstraliji delfine opazujejo že trideset let. V nedavno objavljeni raziskavi so znanstveniki razkrili, kako spletajo prijateljske mreže delfini vrste velika pliskavka. 

Dolphins have been observed in Shark Bay, Australia for thirty years. In a recent study, scientists revealed how dolphins of the porpoise species form friendly networks.

Med tretjim in četrtim letom zapustijo varno okolje staršev in se začnejo družiti z vrstniki.

Between the ages of three and four, they leave the safe environment of their parents and begin to socialize with their peers.

Posamezen mladič z eno družbo lahko ostane le nekaj minut, z drugimi pa preživi več časa in med njimi se izoblikujejo tesnejše vezi.

An individual pup can only stay with another for a few minutes, but spends more time with some and closer bonds are formed between them.

»Obdobje odraščanja je lahko priložnost za razvoj socialnih veščin, ki postanejo pomembne v odrasli dobi,« je vedenje mladih delfinov razložila soavtorica raziskave Allison A. Galezo.

“Growing up can be an opportunity to develop social skills that become important in adulthood,” explained co-author Allison A. Galezo of the behaviour of young dolphins.

Vzorci druženja se razlikujejo tudi glede na spol. Samice več časa preživljajo s sorodnicami ali same.

Social patterns also vary by gender. Females spend more time with relatives or alone.

Mladi samci pa tvorijo širšo socialno mrežo. Njihova trajnejša zavezništva so se obdržala tudi v odrasli dobi.

Young males, on the other hand, form a broader social network. Their more enduring alliances were maintained into adulthood as well.

Za samce so zavezništva pomembna zato, ker v skupinah po dva ali trije iščejo samice za parjenje. Za samice delfinov pa je pomembno, da imajo v času skrbi za mladiče dovolj energije in hrane.

For males, alliances are important because they look for females to mate with in groups of two or three. For female dolphins, however, it is important to have enough energy and food while caring for the pups.

Raziskovalci sklepajo, da se pri vrstah, pri katerih pride do spolne zrelosti kasneje v razvoju, oblikujejo bolj zapletene družbene vezi.

Researchers conclude that more complex social bonds are formed in species that reach sexual maturity later in development.

Oblikovanje skupnosti in odnosi med odraščanjem so pri ljudeh še mnogo bolj pestri in manj spolno določeni, kot jih poznajo delfini.

Community formation and relationships during adolescence are in humans even more diverse and less sexually defined than dolphins are familiar with.

 Read more stories and improve your Slovene at Časoris, while all our dual texts can be found here.

16 Jul 2020, 17:06 PM

Časoris is an online newspaper aimed at children. Each week we’ll take an article and post it here as a Slovene-English dual text.

Se bojiš ognjenih črvov?

Are you scared of fireworms?

Written by Urša Adamič, translated by JL Flanner & G Translate

Medije v poletnih dneh pogosto preplavljajo novice o nevarnih živalih, ki prebivajo v morju.

The media during summer days is often flooded with news about dangerous animals living in the sea.

Bolj ko je novica zastrašujoča in dramatična, hitreje se širi. V naslovih novinarskih prispevkov se zato rade šopirijo besede, ki ljudi prestrašijo. A običajno so pretirane in celo neresnične.

The more frightening and dramatic the news, the faster it spreads. In the headlines of journalists’ articles, therefore, they like to show off words that frighten people. But they are often exaggerated and even untrue.

Te je že srečala novica o invaziji ognjenih črvov, ki na kopalce prežijo v Jadranskem morju? O njih so pisali že lani, ko naj bi eden napadel plavalko, ki je nato potrebovala zdravniško pomoč.

Have you encountered the news about the invasion of fireworms that prey on bathers in the Adriatic Sea? They were written last year when one allegedly attacked a swimmer who then needed medical attention.

Ob natančnem branju in raziskovanju te vrste postane jasno, da ognjeni črvi ne napadajo ljudi. Res pa je, da ni prijetno, če nanje stopimo ali se jih kako drugače dotaknemo.

Upon careful reading and research on this species, it becomes clear that fireworms do not attack humans. It is true, however, that it is not pleasant to step on them or touch them in any other way.

Ognjeni črvi spadajo med mnogoščetince. Ta skupina večinoma morskih živali je ime dobila po številnih ščetinah, ki izraščajo iz njihovega telesa. Premikajo se počasi, veliki so okoli 15 centimetrov in so pod vodo zaradi svoje rdeče barve dobro vidni.

Fire worms are among the polychaetes. This group of mostly marine animals is named after the many bristles that grow out of their bodies. They move slowly, are about 15 centimeters in size and are clearly visible underwater due to their red color.

Prehranjujejo se z drugimi organizmi in rastlinami na morskem dnu, med drugim jedo tudi morske zvezde. Če se počutijo ogrožene, napnejo svoje bele ščetine, ki vsebujejo strup.

They feed on other organisms and plants on the seabed, including starfish. If they feel threatened, they push out their white bristles, which contain poison.

Ščetine lahko predrejo kožo in povzročijo srbečico in pekoč občutek na mestu vboda. Takrat je priporočljivo, da iglice odstranimo z lepljivim trakom in mesto vboda spiramo s hladno morsko vodo. Nato si namestimo v alkohol pomočene obkladke in namažemo s protivnetno kremo.

The bristles can penetrate the skin and cause itching and a burning sensation at the injection site. At that time, it is recommended to remove the needles with adhesive tape and rinse the injection site with cold sea water. Then place compresses soaked in alcohol and apply anti-inflammatory cream.

V nekaterih primerih lahko začutimo tudi slabost in vrtoglavico. Če se po nekaj urah še vedno slabo počutimo, strokovnjaki priporočajo obisk zdravnika.

In some cases, nausea and dizziness may also be felt. If we still feel unwell after a few hours, experts recommend a visit to the doctor.

 Read more stories and improve your Slovene at Časoris, while all our dual texts can be found here.

08 Jul 2020, 22:53 PM

Časoris is an online newspaper aimed at children. Each week we’ll take an article and post it here as a Slovene-English dual text.

Pisani svet ptic

The colourful world of birds

Written by Urša Adamič, translated by JL Flanner & G Translate

Si lahko predstavljaš svet še bolj pisan? V najnovejši raziskavi so pokazali, da kolibriji vidijo tudi ultravijolično svetlobo.

Can you imagine a world even more colourful? Recent research has shown that hummingbirds also see ultraviolet light.

»V primerjavi s kolibriji smo ljudje barvno slepi,« pravi vodja raziskave Mary Caswell Stoddard, profesorica ekologije in evolucijske biologije.

“Compared to hummingbirds, humans are colour-blind,” says research leader Mary Caswell Stoddard, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology.

Ljudje barve zaznavamo s tremi različnimi receptorji, ki jim rečemo čepki. Z njimi vidimo rdečo, modro in zeleno barvo ter njihove kombinacije. Ptice pa imajo štiri vrste čepkov in poleg osnovnih treh barv vidijo tudi ultravijolično svetlobo.

People perceive color with three different receptors, called cones. With them we see red, blue and green and their combinations. Birds, on the other hand, have four types of cones and, in addition to the basic three colours, also see ultraviolet light.

»To ne pomeni, da ptice vidijo le eno barvo več. Vidijo denimo mešanico ultravijolične in rdeče ali pa ultravijolične in modre barve,« nadaljuje Stoddardova. 

“That doesn’t mean birds only see one colour more. They see, for example, a mixture of ultraviolet and red or ultraviolet and blue, ”Stoddard continues.

Za raziskavo so pripravili dve hranilnici: v eni so imeli kolibriji na voljo navadno, v drugi pa sladkano vodo.

Two reservoirs were prepared for the study: in one, hummingbirds had plain water available, and in the other, sweetened water.

Nad vsako hranilnico so postavili svetilko, ki je gorela v različnih barvah in barvnih kombinacijah. Pri eni barvi so vedno dobili sladkano vodo, pri drugi pa navadno.

A lamp was placed above each feeder, shining in different colours and colour combinations. They always got sweetened water for one colour and plain for the other.

Hranilnice so nenehno premikali in poskrbeli, da kolibriji niso mogli sladke vode zavohati. Tako so dokazali, da so se odločili le na podlagi razlike v barvi svetilke nad hranilnico.

The feeders were constantly moved and it was made sure that the hummingbirds could not smell the sweet water. They thus proved that they [the birds] chose only on the basis of the difference in the colour of the lamp above the feeder

»Mi nismo videli razlike med svetilko zelene in svetilko ultravijolično zelene barve, kolibriji pa so se vedno vračali k tisti s sladkano vodo,« pojasnjuje doktorski študent Harold Eyster.

“We didn’t see a difference between a green lamp and an ultraviolet green lamp, and hummingbirds always went back to the one with the sweetened water,” explains doctoral student Harold Eyster.

Poleg ptic ultravijolično svetlobo vidijo številne vrste plazilcev, rib in žuželk. Nekatere živali pa vidijo manj barv od nas. Psi in mačke imajo le dve vrsti čepkov, a bolje od nas vidijo ponoči.

In addition to birds, many species of reptiles, fish, and insects see ultraviolet light. Some animals, however, see fewer colours than we do. Dogs and cats have only two types of cones, but they see better than us at night.

 Read more stories and improve your Slovene at Časoris, while all our dual texts can be found here.

02 Jul 2020, 19:59 PM

Časoris is an online newspaper aimed at children. Each week we’ll take an article and post it here as a Slovene-English dual text.

Fuj, meduza! Pa ni čisto tako

Ugh, jellyfish! Well, it's not quite like that

Written by Urša Adamič, translated by JL Flanner & G Translate

Najbrž poznaš ta občutek, nemara te celo skrbi, da se mu v prihajajočih počitniških dneh ne bo mogoče izogniti.

You probably know this feeling, maybe you’re even worried that it won’t be avoided in the coming holidays.

To je tisti občutek, ko med brezskrbnim plavanjem v morju ob nogi začutiš nekaj sluzastega. Fuj! Meduza! Stik je res neprijeten, čeprav večina meduz ne opeče kože in ni nevarna.

It’s that feeling when you’re swimming without a care in the sea and feel something slimy with your foot. Ugh! Jellyfish! Touching one is really uncomfortable, although most jellyfish do not sting the skin and are not dangerous.

Meduzam delamo krivico. Njihova vloga v ekosistemu oceanov je izredno pomembna.

We do jellyfish an injustice. Their role in the ocean ecosystem is extremely important.

Meduze so izjemno raznolike. Znanstveniki predvidevajo, da je v oceanih vsaj tristo tisoč vrst meduz, ki jih še ne poznamo.

Jellyfish are extremely diverse. Scientists estimate that there are at least three hundred thousand species of jellyfish in the oceans that we do not yet know.

Veliko jih živi zelo globoko in številne imajo sposobnost bioluminiscence. To pomeni, da se lahko v čisti temi globokomorja svetijo v različnih barvah.

Many live very deep and many have the ability of bioluminescence. This means that in the pure darkness of the deep sea they can glow in different colours.

Pri meduzah znanstveniki iščejo tudi odgovor na skrivnost nesmrtnosti. Meduza z latinskim imenom Turritopsis dohrnii je namreč edini znani organizem, ki lahko čas prevrti nazaj in se iz odrasle živali prelevi v fazo polipa.

In jellyfish, scientists are also looking for an answer to the secret of immortality. The jellyfish with the Latin name Turritopsis dohrnii is the only known organism that can turn back time and transform from an adult animal into a polyp phase.

To je podobno, kot če bi se metulj lahko spremenil nazaj v gosenico. Proces pomladitve se lahko odvija v neskončnost, zato je ta vrsta praktično nesmrtna.

This is similar to if a butterfly could turn back into a caterpillar. The process of rejuvenation can take place indefinitely, so this species is virtually immortal.

Nekaterim živalim meduze nudijo zatočišče in varnost, za druge so hrana.

For some animals, jellyfish offer shelter and security, for others they are food.

Pravzaprav je skoraj vse življenje v oceanih odvisno od njih, tudi mi.

In fact, almost all life in the oceans depends on them, so do we.

Glede na raznolike ekosistemske storitve, ki jih nudijo, bi jim lahko rekli tudi lebdeči gozd oceanov. V tem gozdu domuje množica živih bitij, ki brez meduz ne bi mogla preživeti.

Given the diverse ecosystem services they offer, they could also be called a floating forest of the oceans. This forest is home to a multitude of living creatures that would not be able to survive without jellyfish.

Ali veš, da so ponekod meduze celo hrana za ljudi?

Do you know that in some places jellyfish are even food for humans?

 Read more stories and improve your Slovene at Časoris, while all our dual texts can be found here.

25 Jun 2020, 14:18 PM

Časoris is an online newspaper aimed at children. Each week we’ll take an article and post it here as a Slovene-English dual text.

Utrinki z mej za boljši svet

Moments from the borders for a better world

Written by Sonja Merljak Zdovc, translated by JL Flanner & G Translate

Vsako minuto 20 ljudi zapusti dom, da bi ubežali vojni ali nasilju.

Every minute, 20 people leave home to escape war or violence.

Ob 20. juniju, svetovnem dnevu beguncev, v Organizaciji združenih narodov pravijo, da vsako dejanje šteje.

On June 20, World Refugee Day, the United Nations says every action counts.

Epidemija novega koronavirusa in protirasistični protesti so pokazali, da si moramo prizadevati za bolj vključujoč in enakopraven svet. Prav vsak lahko pomaga, da bomo skupaj bolje in lepše živeli.

The new coronavirus epidemic and anti-racist protests have shown that we must strive for a more inclusive and equal world. Everyone can help us together have better and more beautiful lives.

V Sloveniji bo eden od dogodkov ob svetovnem dnevu beguncev okrogla miza o migracijskih tokovih na balkanski poti, ki jo pripravljajo v Inštitutu ISCOMET iz Maribora v okviru projekta Snapshots from the Borders.

In Slovenia, one of the events on the occasion of World Refugee Day will be a roundtable on migration flows on the Balkan route, which is being prepared at the ISCOMET Institute in Maribor as part of the Snapshots from the Borders project.

V mednarodnem projektu sodeluje več kot 30 lokalnih skupnosti in organizacij civilne družbe iz 13 držav članic Evropske unije.

Taking part in the international project are more than 30 local communities and civil society organizations from 13 European Union member states

»Projekt je nastal na pobudo mesta Lampedusa v Italiji, tudi kot spomin na tragičen dogodek, ko je v prevrnjeni ladji, polni beguncev, 3. oktobra 2013, pred otokom umrlo več kot 360 ljudi,« pojasnjuje Franc Mlinar iz inštituta. Iz Slovenije pri projektu sodelujeta še Mestna občina Maribor in občina Črnomelj.

"The project was initiated by the city of Lampedusa in Italy, also in memory of the tragic event when more than 360 people died in front of the island in an overturned ship full of refugees on October 3, 2013," explains Franc Mlinar from the institute. The Municipality of Maribor and the Municipality of Črnomelj are also participating in the project from Slovenia.

S projektom želijo seznaniti javnost s stanjem na področju migracij in prispevati k odpravljanju strahov in predsodkov.

With the project, they want to inform the public about the situation in the field of migration and contribute to overcoming fears and prejudices.

»Sedaj migracije prikazujejo javnosti kot problem, ki ogroža varnost Slovenije. Zdi se, da so se ustavne in mednarodne obveznosti Slovenije pa tudi njene potrebe po delovni sili skrčile na fizično varovanje meje z ograjami ter s policijskimi in vojaškimi enotami ter na vračanje beguncev in migrantov na Hrvaško oziroma v Bosno in Hercegovino.«

"Migration is now portrayed to the public as a problem that threatens Slovenia's security. It seems that Slovenia's constitutional and international obligations, as well as its labour needs, have shrunk to the physical protection of the border with fences and police and military units, and to the return of refugees and migrants to Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. "

S projektom želijo prispevati k oblikovanju sistema vključevanja tujcev v družbo, predvsem na področju izobraževanja in zaposlovanja, prispevati k oblikovanju stališč Slovenije do tega vprašanja v okviru EU in oblikovati mrežo evropskih obmejnih mest za izmenjavo izkušenj pri urejanju migracij in pri integraciji tujcev v lokalno okolje.

The project aims to contribute to the formation of a system of integration of foreigners into society, especially in the field of education and employment, to contribute to the formation of Slovenia's positions on this issue within the EU, and create a network of European border posts for exchanging experiences in migration and the integration of foreigners.

Read more stories and improve your Slovene at Časoris, while all our dual texts can be found here.

22 Jun 2020, 20:02 PM

I use my “professional” Twitter account for three things: occasional reposts of TSN stories, a moshpit for engaging with Brexiteers, and a way to learn Slovenian 280 characters at a time. With regard to the latter I follow local names and dig down into the tweets and replies, hitting Google Translate when needed and saving the texts for printing and study at leisure. It’s a lot of fun, and I like to think I’m progressing, but one person who certainly is Julia Borden, the woman behind the excellent Živjo Luka! account, which documents – a word or phrase at a time – her quest to master the language. Her joy of discovery is beautiful and inspiring, and intrigued by her tweets I sent along some questions to learn more, and she kindly replied…

Who are you?

My name is Julia Borden. I’m from California and currently live here. I’m a PhD student and avid Slovene learner.

Why the interest in learning Slovenian?

My partner is Slovenian, and even though he speaks English fluently, I’m trying to learn to better communicate with him and his family. The language is really difficult to master, and I’m often frustrated with the grammar. But it’s also interesting linguistically, and I find it to be quite poetic!

I started the account because I wanted to capture everything I was learning and discovering. My partner and I both love basketball and Luka Dončić, and this was around the time that Luka was really becoming a sensation on the Mavs, so I thought it would be fun to base the account on my desire to talk to him one day in his native language. It’s maybe not the full reason I started the account, but it would still be amazing to say “Živjo!” to Luka!

What other languages do you speak, and how difficult do you think Slovenian is?

I’m a native English speaker, and a proficient Spanish speaker. Slovene is my first Slavic language, and man is it tough! The trickiest part is trying to learn the six declination cases, since we don’t have this in English.

When did you start learning Slovenian?

I started taking an online class through the Slovenian Union of America once a week about a year ago, though it ended in May.

What methods do you use, and why do they appeal to you?

Unfortunately, since not many people speak Slovene outside of Slovenia, there aren’t many easily accessible ways to learn such as through Duolingo, Rosetta Stone, or even university classes. I have 1,2,3 Gremo, and the class worked with the textbook Slovenska Beseda v Živo. Having a class and learning with other people helps a lot, since I’m not living in Slovenia, which would be the best way to learn! I also learn quite a bit through brainstorming ideas for Živjo Luka.

Do you plan on visiting Slovenia?

I’ve been to Slovenia a couple of times, and I was planning to go again this June, but the coronavirus prevented that from happening.

What are some of the words, phrases that you find most interesting?

I absolutely love the unique idioms and phrases that Slovene has! Like “pojdite v gosjem redu”, “to imam v malem prstu”, and especially “tristo kosmatih medvedov”. 

How are you enjoying Twitter?

I’ve received some really great comments from people on Twitter, pointing out nuances of the language I hadn’t noticed or thought about. It’s been a great way to learn that takes me beyond the pages of a textbook.

With the introduction over, and a few examples shown in this story, it’s time for you to head over to Twitter and follow Živjo Luka!. But also click here to check out all our stories on learning Slovenian.

Luka_twitter_banner copy.png

17 Jun 2020, 15:58 PM

Časoris is an online newspaper aimed at children. Each week we’ll take an article and post it here as a Slovene-English dual text.

Za dinozavre je bil usoden kot, pod katerim je asteroid treščil na Zemljo

For the dinosaurs, the angle at which the asteroid crashed to Earth was fatal

Written by Urša Adamič, translated by JL Flanner & G Translate

Številni raziskovalci se sprašujejo, zakaj so izumrli dinozavri.

Many researchers wonder why dinosaurs became extinct.

Vedo, da se je to zgodilo pred petinšestdesetimi milijoni let zaradi globalne zime, ki je nastala zaradi padca kometa ali asteroida.

They know that this happened sixty-five million years ago due to a global winter caused by the fall of a comet or asteroid.

V nedavno objavljeni raziskavi pa so raziskovalci s pomočjo računalniške simulacije pokazali, da razlog za izumrtje ni bil sam trk, ampak predvsem kot, pod katerim je asteroid treščil na Zemljo. Ta je znašal približno 60 stopinj.

In a recently published study, however, researchers used a computer simulation to show that the cause of the extinction was not the collision itself, but primarily the angle at which the asteroid crashed into Earth. This was about 60 degrees.

»Dinozavri so imeli smolo, da jih je doletel najbolj črn scenarij. Asteroid je na Zemljo priletel pod najbolj smrtonosnim kotom. Tako je nastalo največ plinov, to pa je sprožilo zaporedje dogodkov, ki so vodili do njihovega izumrtja,« je pojasnil vodja raziskave Gareth Collins iz Imperial College of London.

“The dinosaurs were unlucky to be hit by the worst scenario. The asteroid landed on Earth at the most deadly angle. This created the most gases, which triggered a series of events that led to their extinction,” explained study leader Gareth Collins of the Imperial College of London.

Ogromna količina žvepla, ki se je sprostila, je prekrila Sonce. Tedaj je poleg dinozavrov izumrlo 75 odstotkov vseh živečih vrst.

A huge amount of sulphur was released that covered the Sun. At that time, in addition to dinosaurs, 75 percent of all living species became extinct.

Read more stories and improve your Slovene at Časoris, while all our dual texts can be found here.

10 Jun 2020, 19:24 PM

Časoris is an online newspaper aimed at children. Each week we’ll take an article and post it here as a Slovene-English dual text.

Protesti so se iz ZDA razširili tudi po Evropi

Protests from the US also spread across Europe

Written by Sonja Merljak Zdovc, translated by JL Flanner & G Translate

Policisti so Georgea Floyda aretirali, ker naj bi hotel plačati s ponarejenim bankovcem. Če bi bil belec, ga policist za tak prekršek najverjetneje ne bi spravil na tla in mu nato s kolenom osem minut pritiskal na vrat, čeprav je govoril, da ne more dihati.

Police arrested George Floyd because he allegedly wanted to pay with a counterfeit banknote. If he were white, a police officer would most likely not put him on the ground for such an offense and then press his neck with his knee for eight minutes, even though he said he could not breathe.

Po njegovi smrti pa so se na ulice zgrnile množice, ki imajo dovolj rasizma in nasilja nad temnopoltimi. Ameriški časopis za otroke News-O-Matic poroča, da so temnopolti dvakrat pogosteje smrtne žrtve policistov kot belci.

After his death, however, crowds took to the streets and said enough with racism and violence against blacks. The American children's newspaper News-O-Matic reports that blacks are twice as likely to be killed by police officers as whites.

Večinoma miroljubni protesti se se ponekod sprevrgli v nasilne, zato so v nekaterih mestih uvedli policijsko uro. Predsednik Donald Trump je celo razmišljal, da bi na ulice poslal vojsko.

The mostly peaceful protests have turned violent in some places, so curfews were introduced in some cities. President Donald Trump even considered sending the army to the streets.

To se na srečo ni zgodilo.

Fortunately, this did not happen.

Protestnike v ZDA so podprli tudi v Evropi. V britanskem mestu Bristol so porušili spomenik trgovcu s sužnji, v Belgiji pa so s protesti opozarjali tudi na mračno preteklost te države. Pred mnogimi leti je namreč belgijski kralj Leopold II. sredi Afrike ustvaril zasebno kolonijo in prebivalce izkoriščal kot sužnje.

Protesters in the US were also supported in Europe. In the British city of Bristol, a monument to a slave trader was demolished, and in Belgium, protests also drew attention to the country's dark past. Many years ago, King Leopold II of Belgium created a private colony in the middle of Africa and exploited the population as slaves.

Kaj lahko naredite otroci, da bo rasizma manj? V News-O-Maticu svetujejo, da se o njem pogovarjate v šoli in s prijatelji, da veliko berete, da se seznanite z zgodovino in da postanete zavezniki tistih, ki potrebujejo vašo podporo.

What can children do to reduce racism? News-O-Matic advises you to talk about it at school and with friends, to read a lot, to get acquainted with history, and to become allies of those who need your support.

Read more stories and improve your Slovene at Časoris, while all our dual texts can be found here.

03 Jun 2020, 18:15 PM

Časoris is an online newspaper aimed at children. Each week we’ll take an article and post it here as a Slovene-English dual text.

Zvezde se premikajo, mar ne?

The stars are moving, aren't they?

Written by Urša Adamič, translated by JL Flanner & G Translate

Zvezde se premikajo, mar ne? In najbolj jasno jih vidijo astronavti

The stars are moving, aren't they? And they are most clearly seen by astronauts

Bližajo se topli poletni večeri, ko bomo lahko preštevali zvezde.

Warm summer evenings are approaching, when we will be able to count the stars.

Zaradi vrtenja Zemlje se zdi, da zvezde potujejo, ozvezdja pa se zdijo stalna, saj se po njih celo orientiramo.

Because of the rotation of the Earth, the stars seem to travel, and the constellations seem constant, as we even orient ourselves by them.

Toda ali se ozvezdja res ne spreminjajo? Da bi dobili odgovor, moramo najprej izločiti utrinke in satelite.

But aren’t the constellations really changing? To get the answer, we must first eliminate shooting stars and satellites.

Utrinki so ostanki meteoritov, ki se ob stiku z atmosfero zaradi svoje velike hitrosti in trenja vnamejo in zgorijo.

Shooting stars are the remnants of meteorites that ignite and burn when in contact with the atmosphere due to their high speed and friction.

Satelite vidimo kot svetleče pikice, ki se počasi, a enakomerno premikajo. Vidimo jih, ker odbijajo sončno svetlobo, sami pa ne svetijo.

We see satellites as glowing dots that move slowly but steadily. We see them because they reflect sunlight and do not shine themselves.

Za zvezde pa velja, da oddajajo lastno svetlobo in toploto, ki nastajata z jedrskimi reakcijami na površini. 

Stars, on the other hand, emit their own light and heat, generated by nuclear reactions on the surface.

Znanstveniki so ugotovili, da se zvezde znotraj ozvezdij premikajo. Skoraj vse, ki jih vidimo, z različnimi hitrostmi krožijo okoli središča naše galaksije, ki ji pravimo Mlečna oziroma Rimska cesta.

Scientists have found that stars move within constellations. Almost everything we see orbits at different speeds around the centre of our galaxy, which we call the Milky Way.

S severne poloble lahko s prostim očesom avgusta vidimo galaksijo Andromedo, ki je nam najbližja. Z južne poloble lahko opazujejo še dve pritlikavi galaksiji, ki sta videti kot svetlobna oblaka.

From the northern hemisphere in August the naked eye can see the Andromeda galaxy, which is closest to us. From the southern hemisphere, it can observe two more dwarf galaxies that look like light clouds.

Toda zvezde se premikajo zelo počasi. Najhitreje se premika drobna Barnardova zvezda v ozvezdju Ophiuchus, tik nad ozvezdjem Škorpijona.

But the stars are moving very slowly. The fastest moving is the tiny Barnard's Star in the constellation Ophiuchus, just above the constellation Scorpio.

Ta »najhitrejša« zvezda bi potrebovala celih 350 let, da prepotuje razdaljo za debelino tvojega mezinčka.

This “fastest” star would take a full 350 years to travel the distance for the thickness of your little finger.

Read more stories and improve your Slovene at Časoris, while all our dual texts can be found here.

28 May 2020, 15:38 PM

Časoris is an online newspaper aimed at children. Each week we’ll take an article and post it here as a Slovene-English dual text.

Virusi v tebi

Viruses in you

Written by Urša Adamič, translated by JL Flanner & G Translate

Raziskovalci nevidnega sveta mikroorganizmov človeško telo vedno bolj razumejo kot ekosistem različnih organizmov.

Researchers of the invisible world of microorganisms increasingly understand the human body as an ecosystem of various organisms.

Kot recimo v gozdu domujejo različne vrste živali in rastlin, je tudi naše telo dom različnih bakterij in virusov.

Just as a forest is home to different species of animals and plants, our body is also home to various bacteria and viruses.

Raziskovalci najbolj poznajo bakterije v črevesju. Vedno več pozornosti posvečajo tudi virusom. Po zadnjih ocenah jih je v našem telesu veliko več kot bakterij. Velike večine jih sploh še ne poznamo, saj so ti tako zelo različni.

Researchers know the bacteria in the gut best. They are also paying more and more attention to viruses. According to the latest estimates, there are many more of them in our body than bacteria. We don't even know the vast majority of them yet, because they are so very different.

Celoten nabor virusov imenujemo virom. Od človeka do človeka se ta virom zelo razlikuje, pa tudi ljudje iz različnih delov sveta imajo zelo različne virome zaradi različnih prehranjevalnih in higienskih navad.

The whole set of viruses is called a virome. This virome varies greatly from person to person, and people from different parts of the world also have very different viromes due to different eating and hygiene habits.

Znanstveniki so izolirali različne ostanke virusnih genov iz blata dvojčkov in njune matere. Ugotovili so, da so bili njihovi virusi zelo različni virusi, pa tudi, da imajo zdravi ljudje v telesu ogromno virusov.

Scientists have isolated various remnants of viral genes from the faeces of the twins and their mother. They found that their viruses were very different viruses, and also that healthy people have a huge amount of viruses in their bodies.

Številni virusi nam pomagajo pri prebavi hrane. V debelem črevesju recimo bakteriofagi – virusi bakterij – uravnavajo številčnost bakterij. Tako varujejo naše telo pred okužbo.

Many viruses help us digest food. In the large intestine, for example, bacteriophages – bacterial viruses – regulate the amount of bacteria. This protects our body from infection.

Virusi ne živijo le v debelem črevesju. Svojo sled so pustili tudi na naših genih. Pred 25 milijoni let se je v genom višjih primatov vrinil retro virus.

Viruses don’t just live in the colon. They also left their mark on our genes. Twenty-five million years ago, a retrovirus entered the genome of higher primates.

Ta je povzročil razvoj novega organa pri samicah. Med nosečnostjo se od tedaj v maternici razvije placenta, ki omogoča preskrbo zarodka s hrano.

This led to the development of a new organ in females. During pregnancy, the placenta develops in the uterus, which allows the fetus to be supplied with food

Nova lastnost je zmanjšala smrtnost zarodkov in za vrsto predstavljala tako veliko prednost, da se je virus v našem genomu ohranil do danes.

This new trait reduced embryo mortality and was such a huge advantage for the species that the virus has survived in our genome to this day.

 Read more stories and improve your Slovene at Časoris, while all our dual texts can be found here.

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